Prof. Rakesh Bhatnagar

Dr. Rakesh Bhatnagar
Ph: +91 11 26704079; 26742040
Email: ,


Ph. D. (Biochemistry), National Sugar Institute, Kanpur.
M.Sc. (Chemistry), Kanpur University, Kanpur.


Professor, School of Biotechnology, JNU, New Delhi.
Coordinator, Bioinformatics Centre, JNU, New Delhi
Associate Professor, Special Centre for Biotechnology, JNU, New Delhi.
Senior NRC Associate, USAMRIID, Fredrick, USA.
Visiting Associate, NHLBI, NIH, Bethesda, USA.
Visiting Associate Prof. Lab. Connect. Tissue, CHU, Caen, France.
Scientist, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Institute, Freiburg University, Germany

Area of Interest:

  • Molecular Biology of Infectious Diseases
  • Recombinant Vaccine Development
  • Programmed cell death in prokaryotes

Research Summary:

Prof. Rakesh Bhatnagar has been working in the field of anthrax for the past 20 years. He has to his credit the development of genetically engineered vaccine against anthrax. The technology of recombinant anthrax vaccine has been transferred to Panacea Biotec Ltd. and the vaccine has successfully undergone Phase I and Phase II Human clinical trials. Also, his research group pioneered the expression of Protective Antigen gene in a plant system, which marks the first milestone towards developing edible vaccine against anthrax. DNA vaccine against Rabies has been developed in his laboratory and is ready for technology transfer. Further research is being done to develop DNA vaccine against anthrax. Laboratory is also engaged in study of programmed cell death in prokaryotes. His research group has recently initiated research in other important infectious disease systems like Mycobacterium, Brucella; aiming to open avenues for their control.


Administrative experience:

2013 - 2015: Dean, School of Biotechnology

2012 - 2013: Vice Chancellor, Kumaun University

2011 - 2012: Director, Academic staff college, Jawaharlal Nehru University

2009 - 2011: Director, Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. 

Academic experience:

Ph.D. students guided:

Year Names
2015 Alisha Dhiman, Deeksha Tripathi
2014 Rajni Garg, Shashikala Verma
2013 Manish, Gurudutta Panda
2012 Divya Goel, Preeti Singh
2011 Kanchan Sinha, Parul Kulshreshtha
2010 Shivangi Agarwal
2009 Manpreet Kaur, G. Jyotsna, Jitendra Singh
2008 Shuchi Midha
2007 Megha Gupta, Sheeba Alam, Mohan Chandra Joshi
2006 Subhash Chandra, A. Krishnamachari
2004 Puneet Khandelwal, Mohd. Azhar Aziz
2003 Samer Singh
2002 Syed Mohsin Waheed, Sharik Rahil Khan, Praveen Kumar
2001 Vibha Chauhan, Aparna Singh
2000 Smriti Batra
1999 Pankaj Gupta
1998 Adhuna,Puran Singh Sijwali
1996 Deotosh Kumar Surendra Singh

Reviewer of esteemed international journals:

Vaccine, Molecular Immunology, Applied microbiology and Biotechnology, Infection and Immunity, FASEB journal, PlosOne

International Collaboration/Consultancy:

Prof. Vitor Martin dos Santos, Systems and Synthetic Biology, Wageningen University, Netherlands.

Ram Samudrala, Associate Professor, Computational Biology Research Group, University of Washington, Seattle. 

Prof. Venugopal Nair, Head, Avian Infectious Disease, Institute of Animal Health, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. United Kingdom


  • Fellow, Indian National Science Academy, India.
  • Prof. Rakesh Bhatnagar was ranked among the top 10 (seventh) eminent researchers publishing commendable research papers on anthrax. (Open source Global Anthrax Research Literature 2006)
  • Fellow, National Academy of Sciences
  • Fellow, Indian Academy of Sciences
  • Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) award for his outstanding research work in the field of Immunology (Development of recombinant anthrax vaccine) for the year 2001.
  • All India Biotech Association Award 2001-2002, in recognition of achievement in Promotion of Biotechnology, In The Area of Biotechnology For Health Care.
  • Haffkine Institute, Bombay, Dr. Gharpure Oration Lecture, 2002.
  • Invited to address Press Conference to announce Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccine against Anthrax, with Minister of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, November 2001
  • Invited to deliver Press Conference to announce Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccine against Anthrax, Annual Meeting of American Society for Cell Biology, Washington, DC., December 2001.
  • Institute of Pathology Silver Jubilee Oration Lecture, 1992.
  • Senior N R C (USA) Research Award, 1987-1989.
  • Best Research paper presented in Society of Biological Chemists Meeting, 1984.

Peer reviewed publications/Books:

135. Garhyan J, Bhuyan S, Pulu I, Kalita D, Das B, Bhatnagar R. (2015). Preclinical and clinical evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosispersistence in the hypoxic niche of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after therapy. The American Journal of Pathology; 185(7):1924-34.

134. SomyaAggarwal, Vikas Kumar Somani, Rakesh Bhatnagar (2015) Phosphate starvation enhances the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. pii: S1438-4221(15)00053-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2015.06.001.

133. Singh D, Goel D, Bhatnagar R. (2015). Recombinant L7/L12 protein entrapping PLGA (poly lactide-co-glycolide) micro particles protect BALB/c mice against the virulent B. abortus 544 infection. Vaccine. 33(24):2786-92

132. Panda G, Tanwer P, Ansari S, Khare D, Bhatnagar R. (2015). Regulation and RNA-binding properties of Hfq-like RNA chaperones in Bacillus anthracis. BiochimBiophysActa. 1850(9):1661-1668.

131. Dhiman A, Gopalani M, Bhatnagar R. (2015). WalRK two component system of Bacillus anthracis responds to temperature and antibiotic stress. BiochemBiophys Res Commun. 459(4):623-8.

130. Tripathi D, Kant S, Garg R, Bhatnagar R. (2015). Low expression level of glnA1 accounts for absence of cell wall associated poly-l-glutamate/glutamine in Mycobacterium smegmatis. BiochemBiophys Res Commun. 458(2):240-5.

129. Kaur M, Garg R, Singh S, Bhatnagar R. (2014). Rabies vaccines: where do we stand, where arewe heading. Expert Rev Vaccines, 14(3):369-81.

128. Garg R, Tripathi D, Kant S, Chandra H, Bhatnagar R, Banerjee N. (2014). Conserved Hypothetical Protein Rv0574c Is Required for Cell Wall Integrity, Stress Tolerance and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection and immunity, 83(1):120-9.

127. ShashikalaVerma, Rakesh Bhatnagar (2014). MoxT toxin of Bacillus anthracis exhibits sequence specificribonuclease activity Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 450(2):998-1004.

126. Rajni Garg, Manpreet Kaur, Rakesh Bhatnagar (2014). DNA vaccination for Rabies: Evaluation of Preclinical Safety and Toxicology. Trials in Vaccinology; 3:73-80.

125. Shashikala Verma, Sudhir Kumar, Ved Prakash Gupta, Samudrala Gourinath, Sonika Bhatnagar, Rakesh Bhatnagar. (2014) Structural basis of Bacillus anthracis MoxXT disruption and the modulation of MoxT ribonuclease activity by rationally designed peptides. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn; DOI:10.1080/07391102.2014.899924.

124. Gorantala J, Grover S, Rahi A, Chaudhary P, Rajwanshi R, Sarin NB, Bhatnagar R. (2014). Generation of Protective immune response against anthrax by oral immunization with protective antigen plant based vaccine. Journal of Biotechnology; 176:1-10.

123. Alisha Dhiman, Sonika Bhatnagar, Parul Kulshreshtha and Rakesh Bhatnagar (2014) Functional Characterization of WalRK: a Two Component Signal Transduction System from Bacillus anthracis. FEBS Open Bio; 4: 65–76.

122. Gurudutta Panda, Trayambak Basak, Pooja Tanwer, Shantanu Sengupta, Vitor A.P. Martins dos Santos, Rakesh Bhatnagar. (2014) Delineating the Effect of Host Environmental Signals on a Fully Virulent Strain of Bacillus anthracis using an Integrated Transcriptomics and Proteomics Approach. Journal of Proteomics; pii: S1874-3919(13)00653-2.

121. Nikita Chopra, Saumitra, Abhinandan Pathak, and Sonika Bhatnagar. Rakesh Bhatnagar. (2013) Linkage, Mobility and Selfishness in the MazF Family of Bacterial Toxins: A Snapshot of Bacterial Evolution. Genome Biol. Evol; 5(12): 2268-2284.

120. Kaur M, Singh S, Bhatnagar R. (2013). Anthrax vaccines: present status and future prospects. Expert Rev Vaccines; 12(8):955-70.

119. D.Tripathi, H.Chandra, R.Bhatnagar.(2013) Poly-L-glutamate/glutamine synthesis in the cell wall of Mycobacterium bovis is regulated in response to nitrogen availability. BMC Microbiology; 13: 226.

118. M Manish, A Rahi, M Kaur, S Singh. R Bhatnagar. (2013) A Single-Dose PLGA Encapsulated Protective Antigen Domain 4 Nanoformulation Protects Mice against Bacillus anthracis Spore Challenge. PloS One; 8 (4): e61885

117. Divya Goel, Vinoth Rajendran, Prahlad C. Ghosh and Bhatnagar R. 2013 Cell mediated immune response after challenge in Omp25 liposome immunized mice contributes to protection against virulent Brucella abortus 544. Vaccine 31 (8): 1231-1237.

116. Kanchan Sinha and Bhatnagar R. 2013 Recombinant GroEL enhances protective antigen-mediated protection against Bacillus anthracis spore challenge. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 202(2):153-65

115. Divya Goel, Bhatnagar R. (2012) Intradermal immunization with outer membrane protein 25 protects Balb/c mice from virulent B. abortus 544. Molecular Immunology 51(2):159-68.

114. Kulshreshtha P, S. Aggarwal, H. Jaiswal, Bhatnagar R. (2011) S-layer homology motif is an immunogen and confers protection to mouse model against anthrax. 50(1-2):18-25

113. Kaur M., Bhatnagar R. (2011) Recent Progress in development of anthrax vaccines. Recent  Patents  on Biotechnology,5(3):148-159.

112. Gorantala J, Grover S, Goel D, Rahi A, Chandra S, Bhatnagar R (2011). A plant based protective antigen [PA(dIV)] vaccine expressed in chloroplasts demonstrates protective immunity in mice against anthrax. Vaccine; 2011 Jun 15; 29(27):4521-33.

111. Rahi A., Rehan M., Garg R, Tripathi D., Lynn A.M., and Bhatnagar   R. (2011).  Enzymatic characterization of Catalase from Bacillus anthracis and prediction of critical residues using information theoretic measure of Relative Entropy.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 2011 Jul 22; 411(1):88-95.

110. Kulshreshtha P., and Bhatnagar R. (2011).  Inhibition of anthrax toxins with a bispecific monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with edema factor as well as lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis. Molecular Immunology; Sep;48(15-16):1958-65.

109. Kanchan Sinha and Rakesh Bhatnagar (2010) GroEL provides protection against Bacillus anthracis  infection in BALB/c mice Molecular Immunology;  48, 264-71

108. Nikita ChopraShivangi AgarwalShashikala VermaSonika Bhatnagar and  Bhatnagar R. (2011). Modeling of the structure and interactions of the B.   anthracis antitoxin, MoxX: deletion mutant studies highlight its modular structure and repressor function. J Comput Aided Mol Des; 25:275–291.

107. Matta S.K, Agarwal S, Bhatnagar R (2010) Surface localized and extracellular    Glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate dehydrogenase of Bacillus anthracis is a plasminogen binding protein. Biochim. Biophys Acta. ; 1804(11):2111-2120

106. Agarwal S., Mishra N.K., Bhatnagar S. and Bhatnagar R. (2010) PemK Toxin of Bacillus anthracis Is a Ribonuclease  an insight into its active site, structure and function J.Biol.Chem ;285,7254-7270.

105. Kaur M., Saxena A., Rai A. and Bhatnagar R. (2010) Rabies DNA vaccine encoding lysosome targeted glycoprotein supplemented with EMULSIGEN D confers complete protection in pre-and post-exposure studies in BALB/c mice. FASEB J 24;173-183.

104. Chawla A. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Anthrax Vaccine. Adult Immunization 1, 1-7.

103. Chawla A., Midha S. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Efficacy of recombinant anthrax vaccine      against Bacillus anthracis aerosol spore challenge: Pre-clinical evaluation in Rabbits and Rhesus monkeys. Biotechnology Journal; 4, 1-9.

102. Kaur M., Chug H., Singh H., Chandra S., Mishra M., Sharma M. and Bhatnagar R.(2009).Identification And Characterization Of Immunodominant B-Cell Epitope of The C-Terminus Of Protective Antigen Of Bacillus anthracis. Molecular  Immunology; 46,2107-2115.

101. Kaur M., Rai A. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Rabies DNA vaccine: No impact of MHC Class I and Class II targeting sequences on immune response and protection against lethal challenge. Vaccine; 27, 2128-2137.

100.  Midha S. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Genetic Immunization with GPI-anchored Anthrax Protective antigen raises combined CD1d- and MHC II-restricted Antibody Responses by Natural Killer T cell-mediated help. Vaccine ;27(11):1700-9

99.  Midha S. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Anthrax protective antigen administered by DNA vaccination to distinct subcellular locations potentiates humoral and cellular immune responses. European Journal of Immunology; 39(1): 159-77

98.  Kanodia S., Agarwal S., Singh P., Agarwal S., Singh P. and Bhatnagar R. (2009) Biochemical and functional characterization of alanine racemase spore protein of Bacillus anthracis. Biochem.Mol.Biol. Reports; 42, 1, 47-52.

97.  Joshi M.C., Sharma A., Kant S., Birah A., Gupta G.P., Khan S.R., Bhatnagar R. and Banerjee N. (2008) An Insecticidal GroEL protein with chitin binding activity from Xenorhabdus nematophila. J.Biol.Chem.; 2008 Oct 17;283(42):28287-96.

96.  Agarwal S., Kulshrestha P., Mukku D.B. and Bhatnagar R. (2008) a-enolase binds to     human plasminogen on the surface of Bacillus anthracis. Biochim.Biophys Acta.; 1784 :986-94

95.  Gupta M., Alam S. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Catalytically inactive anthrax toxin(s) are potential prophylactic agents. Vaccine; 25: 8410-8419.

94.  Chandra S, Kaur M, Midha S, Gorantala J. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against Mycobacterial antigen using domain I of anthrax edema factor as antigen delivery system. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun;357:50-55.

93.  Aziz M. A., Midha S., Waheed S. M. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Oral vaccines: New needs, New Possibilities. BioEssays 29: 591-604.

92.  Agarwal S., Agarwal S. and Bhatnagar R. (2007) Identification and Characterization of a Novel Toxin-Antitoxin Module from Bacillus anthracis. FEBS Letters  581: 1727-34.

91.  Chandra S., Kaur M., Midha S., Bhatnagar N. B. and Bhatnagar R. (2006) Evaluation of the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis for delivery of Mycobacterium T-cell antigen ESAT-6 into cytosol of antigen presenting cells to elicit effective cytotoxic Tlymphocytes response. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 351: 702-7.

90.  Gupta M., Alam S. and Bhatnagar R. (2006) Kinetic characterization and ligand binding studies of His351 mutants of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics ;446: 28 -34.

89.  Alam S., Gupta M. and Bhatnagar R. (2006) Inhibition of platelet aggregation by anthrax edema toxin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 399: 107 -114.

88.  Midha S., Mishra R., Aziz M. A., Sharma M., Mishra A., Khandelwal P. and Bhatnagar R. (2005) Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Nitric Oxide Synthase-like protein from Bacillus anthracis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. ; 336: 346-356

87.  Aziz M. A., Sikriwal D., Singh S., Jarugula S., Kumar A. and Bhatnagar R. (2005) Transformation of an edible crop with pagA gene of Bacillus anthracis .FASEB J;. 19:1501-3

86.  Singh S., Singh A., Aziz M. A., Waheed S. M., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) Thermal   inactivation of Protective Antigen of B. anthracis and its prevention by polyosmolytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun; 322:1029-1037.

85.  Ahuja N., Kumar P. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) Adenylate cyclase toxins. Crit. Rev.Microbiol.;30: 187–196.

84.  Singh J., Joshi M.C. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) Cloning and expression of mycobacterial   glutamine synthetase gene in E. coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 317 : 634-638.

83.  Singh S., Aziz M. A., Khandelwal P., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2004) The  osmoprotectants glycine and its methyl derivatives prevent the thermal inactivation of protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 316 : 559–564.

82.  Khandelwal P., Bhatnagar R., Choudhury D. and Banerjee N. (2004)  Characterization of a cytotoxic pilin subunit of Xenorhabdus nematophilaBiochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 314: 943-949.

81.  Chattopadhyay A., Bhatnagar R. and Bhatnagar N. (2004) Bacterial Insecticidal Toxins Crit.  Rev.  Microbiol.; 30 : 33–54.

80.  Ahuja N., Kumar P., Alam S., Gupta M. and Bhatnagar R. (2003)  Deletion mutants of protective antigen that inhibit anthrax toxin both in vitro and in vivo Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 307:  446–450.

79.  Aziz M.A., Singh S., Kumar A. P. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Expression of protective antigen in transgenic plants: a step towards making edible vaccine against anthrax. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 299:345-51.

78.  Kumar P., Ahuja N. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Anthrax edema toxin requires influx of calcium for inducing cAMP toxicity in target cells. Infect. Immun.; 70: 4997-5007.

77.  Singh S., Ahuja N., Chauhan V., Rajasekaran E., Waheed S.M., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Gln 277 and Phe 554 residues are involved in thermal inactivation of protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis  Biochem.  Biophys. Res. Commun;. 296:1058-1062.

76.  Chauhan V. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Identification of amino acid residues of Protective antigen involved in binding to Lethal factor Infect.  Immun.; 70: 4477- 4484.

75.  Singh A., Chauhan V., Sodhi A. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Asp 187 and Phe 190 residues in lethal factor are required for the expression of  anthrax lethal toxin activity FEMS Microbiology Letters; 212 :183-6.

74.  Singh A., Singh S., Waheed S. M., Khandelwal P. and Bhatnagar R. (2002) Expression of    anthrax lethal factor gene by osmolyte induction FEMS Microbiology Letters; 209 : 301-5.

73.  Ahuja N, Kumar P. and Bhatngar R. (2001) Hydrophobic residues Phe552, Phe554, Ile562, Leu566 and Ile574 are required for oligomerization of anthrax protective antigen. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commum;287: 542-9.

72.  Ahuja N., Kumar P. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Rapid Purification of Recombinant Anthrax-Protective Antigen under Nondenaturing Conditions. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.; 286:6-11.

71.  Bhatnagar R. and Batra S. (2001) Anthrax Toxin. Crit. Rev. Microbiol.; 27: 167-200.

70.  Gupta P., Sahai V. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Enhanced expression of the recombinant  lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis by Fed-Batch culture. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.;285: 1025-1033.

69.  Gupta P., Singh S., Tiwari A., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Effect of pH on stability of Anthrax lethal factor : Correlation between denaturation and activity. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun.; 284: 568-73.

68.  Chauhan V., Singh A., Waheed S. M., Singh S. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Constitutive Expression of Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus anthracis in Escherichia coliBiochem. Biophy. Res. Commun; 283 : 308-315.

67.  Kumar P., Ahuja N. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Purification of Anthrax Edema Factor from Escherichia coli and identification of residues required for binding to Protective Antigen Infec. & Immun; 69 : 6532-6.

66.  Batra S., Gupta P., Chauhan V., Singh A. and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Trp 346 and Leu 352 residues in protective antigen are required for the expression of anthrax lethal toxin activity. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun;. 281: 186-192.

65.  Gupta P., Singh A., Chauhan V., and Bhatnagar R. (2001) Involvement of residues 147VYYEIGK153 in binding of Lethal factor to Protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun; 280: 158-163.

64.  Adhuna., Salotra P. and Bhatnagar R. (2000) Nitric oxide induced expression of stress proteins in virulent and avirulent promastigotes of L. donovani. Immunology Letters; 71: 71-176.

63.  Gupta P., Waheed S.M. and Bhatnagar R. (1999) Expression and purification of the recombinant Protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Protein Expression and Purification; 16: 369-376.

62.  Bhatnagar R., Ahuja N., Goila R., Khetarpal S., Waheed S.M. and Gupta P. (1999) Activation of phospholipase C and protein kinase C is required for expression of anthrax lethal toxin cytotoxicity in J774A. 1 cells. Cellular Signalling; 11: 111-116.

61.  Gupta P., Khetarpal S., Chopra A.P., Singh Y. and Bhatnagar R. (1998) Expression and Purification of the recombinant Lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis. Infec Immun; 66: 862-865.

60.  Bhatnagar R., Dixit A. and Roy K.B. (1998) Biochemistry (Book) National Open School..

59.  Salotra P. and Bhatnagar R. (1998) Role of stress proteins in Leishmania in Microbes: r Health, Wealth & Sustainable Environment, Ed. A. Verma, 595-615.

58.  Adhuna., Salotra P., Mukhopadhya B. and Bhatnagar R. (1997) Modulation of macrophage heat shock protein (HSPs) expression in response to intracellular infection by virulent and avirulent strains of Leishmania donovani. Biochem. Mol. Bio. Int.; 43: 1265-1275.

57.  Radha C., Salotra P., Bhat R. and Bhatnagar R. (1996) Thermostabilization of Protective tigen-the binding component of anthrax lethal toxin.J. Biotechnol. ; 50: 235-242.

56.  Salotra P., Seal K.P., Krishna N., Jaffe H. and Bhatnagar R. (1995) Expression of Dnak and GroEl homologs in Leuconostoc mesenteroides in response to heat shock or chemical stress. FEMS Microbiology Letters; 131: 7-62.

55.  Salotra P., Chauhan D., Rallhan R. and Bhatnagar R. (1995) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces preferential expression of stress proteins in virulent promastigotes of Leshmania donovani.  Immunology Letters, 44: 1-5.

54.  Richa S., Salotra P., Bhatnagar R. and Datta K. (1995) L-alanine- dioxovalerate transaminase in Leishmania donovani that differs from the mammalian enzyme. Microbiol. Res.; 150: 1-5.

53.  Salotra P., Ralhan R. and Bhatnagar R. (1994) Differential expression of heat shock proteins in virulent and attenuated strains of Leishmania donovani. Biochemistry & Molecular Biology International; 33 : 691-697.

52.  Bhatnagar R. and Friedlander A.M. (1994) Protein synthesis is required for the expression nthrax lethal toxin cytotoxicity. Infec. Immun;. 62 : 2958-62.

51.  Friedlander A.M., Bhatnagar R., Leppla S.H., Johnson L. and Singh Y. (1993) Characterization of macrophage sensitivity and resistance to anthrax lethal toxin. Infec. lmmun. 61: 245-252.

50.  Dhaunsi G. S., Sidhu G.S., GargU.C., Singh Y., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1990) Effect on intestinal nutrient uptake and brush border membrane enzymes in response to atherogenic diet in rhesus monkeys. J. Med. Primatol. 18 : 467-475.

49.  Dhaunsi G.S., Garg U.C., Bhatnagar R., Ganguly N.K. and Chakravarti R.N.  (1990) Renal brush border membrane enzymatic status in atherogenic diet fed Rhesus monkeys. Biochemical Archives. 6 : 95-102.

48.  Leppla S.H., Friedlander A.M., Singh Y., Cora E.M. and Bhatnagar R.  (1990) A model for anthrax lethal toxin action at the cellular level. Salisbury Medical Bullatin 68 : 41-43.

47.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R.(1990)  Humoral and cell mediated immunity in pyelonephritic rats immunized with fimbriae of Escherichia coli. Med. Sci. Res. 18 : 601-603.

46.  Singh Y., LepplaS.H., Bhatnagar R. and Friedlander A.M. (1990) Basis of cellular sensitivity and resistance to anthrax lethal toxin. Salisbury Medical Bullatin. 68 : 46-48.

45.  Singh Y., Leppla S.H., Bhatnagar R. and Friedlander A. (1989) Internalization and processing of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-sensitive and resistance cells. J. Biol. Chem. 254  : 11099-11102.

44.  Bhatnagar R., Singh Y., Leppla S. and Friedlander A. (1989) Calcium is required for expression of anthrax lethal toxin activity. Infec. lmmun. 57 : 2107-2114.

43.  Krishna G., Singh Y., Sidhu G.S. and Bhatnagar R.  (1989) Mechanism of MPTP induced Parkinson's disease at cellular and subcellular level. In Neurochemical Pharmacology(Ed Costa) p 165-174.

42.  Singh Y., Bhatnagar R., Sidhu G.S., Batra J.K. and Krishna G. (1989)MPTP inhibits proton motive force in energized mitochondria. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 271 : 217-222.

41.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1989) Transport of nutrients into the renal brush border membrane vesicles as markers in evaluating the role of antibodies in modulation of ascending pyelonephritis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 57 : 155-160.

40.  Mereish K.A., Solow R., Singh Y. and Bhatnagar R. (1989) Comparative toxicity of cyclic peptides. Med. Sci. Res. 17 : 869-871.

39.  Mauviel A., Teyton L., Bhatnagar R., Penfornis H., Laurent M., Hartman D., Bonaventure J., Loyau G., Saklatvala J. and Pujol J.P. (1988) Interleukin-I modulates collagen gene expression in cultured synovial cells. Biochem. J. 252 : 247-255.

38.  Garg U.C., Rai N., Dhaunsi G.S., Sidhu G.S., Singh Y., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1988) A spectrophotometric assay for calmodulin. Biotechniques 6 : 294-296.

37.  Falah A.M.S., Bhatnagar R., Bhatnagar N., Singh Y., Murthy P.S. and Venkitasubramanian T.A.  (1988) On the presence of calmodulin like protein in Mycobacteria FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56 : 89-94.

36.  Singh Y., Chaudhary V.K., Bhatnagar R. and Misra U.K. (1988) Mixed function oxidases in response to quality and quality of dietary protein. Biochem. International 17 : 1-8.

35.  Singh Y., Bhatnagar R. and Misra U.K. (1988) Hepatic phosphatidylcholine synthesis in defficiency of lysine and lysine and threonine : Effect of malathione. Experientia 44 : 758-759.

34.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Brush border enzyme as markers for ascending pyelonephritis: active immunization with pilli. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 43 : 127-131.

33.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) New sensitive markers for the detection of experimental ascending pyelonephritis. Life Sci. 41 : 1-56.

32.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Quantitative histopathological method for the evaluation of       experimental pyelonephritis in rat.  Med. Sci. Res. 15 :367-368.

31.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Towards the mechanism of altered nutrients uptake in brush border membrane vesicles from pyelonpehritis rats Biochem. Int. 14 : 949-955.

30.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Calmodulin: Factor contributing towards altered nutrient uptake in pyelonephritis in rat. Med. Sci. Res. 15 : 369-370.

29.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R.  (1987) Antipilli antibodies afford protection against ascending pyelonephritis in rats: evaluation by renal brush border membrane enzymes. Biochem. Int. 14 : 517-524.

28.  Garg U.C., Sharma D.K., Dhaunsi G.S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Altered intestinal brush border membrane enzymes and nutrients uptake in naloxone treated rats Med. Sci Res. 15 : 551-552.

27.  Gill N.J., Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Mahajan R.C. and Bhatnagar R. (1987). Alteration of brush border membrane enzymes in intestinal amoebiasis. Med. Sci. Res. 15 : 101-102.

26.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987). Prevention of alteration in the uptake of nutrients in pyelonephritis immunization with pilli. Biochem. Int. 15 : 881-886.

25.  Gill N.J., Garg U.C., Ganguly N.Y., Mahajan R.C. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Release of lysosomal enzymes by kupffer cells in experimental hepatic amoebiasis Med. Sci. Res. 15 : 991-992.

24.  Dhaunsi G.S., Garg U.C., Sharma D.K., Aulakh B.S. and Bhatnagar R. (1987) Towards the mechanism of protection against indomethace in induced gastrointestinal ulceration by naloxone. Med. Sci. Res., 15: 1034-1035.

23.  Dilwari J.B., Kumar A.V.K., Khurana S., Bhatnagar R. and Dash R.J. (1987)The effect of legumes on blood glucose in diabetesmelitus. Ind. J. Med. Res. 85 :184-187.

22.  Bhatnagar R., Penfornis H., Mauviel A., Loyau G., Saklatvala J. and Poujol J. P. (1986) Interleukin-I inhibits and synthesis of collagen by fibroblast. Biochem. Int. 13 : 709-720.

21.  Sidhu G.S., Dhuansi G.S., Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) Renal nutrients uptake and brush border membrane enzymes in cholesterol fed guinea pigs.  Biochem. Med. 36 : 179-185.

20.  Sidhu G.S., Garg U.C., Dhaunsi G.S., Bhari S.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) Enzymatic and transport studies in cholesterol fed guinea pigs using intestinal brush border membrane vesicle. Digestion, 34 : 251-258.

19.  Garg U.C., Ganguly N.K., Sharma S. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) Kinetics of nutrient uptake in renal brush border membrane vesicles from rat with experimental pyelonephritis  Biochem. Int. 7-14.

18.  Garg U.C., Sidhu G.S., Sharma S., Chakravarti R.N., Ganguly N.K. and Bhatnagar R. (1986) The presence of calmodulin in renal micrivillar core. Int. Res. Comm. Sys. Med. Sci, 14 : 752-753.

17.  Garg U.C., Sidhu G.S., Sharma S., Chakravarti R.N. and Bhatnagar R. (1985) Pyelonephritis alters the reabsorption of nutrients and brush border enzymes of rat kidney Biochem. Int. 11 : 145-152.

16.  Dhaunsi G.S., Garg U.C., Sidhu G.S. and Bhatnagar R. (1985)Enzymatic andtransport studies on rat intestinal brush border membrane vesicles bound to pea and lentil lectins. Int. Res. Comm. Sys. Med. Sci. 13 : 469-70.

15.  Bhatnagar R., Bhatnagar N. and Prabhu K.A. (1985) Extracellular dextransucrase from a new strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Int. Res. Comm. Sys. Med. Sci. 13 : 129-130.

14.  Bhatnagar N., Bhatnagar R. and Venkitasubramanian T.A. (1984) Characterization and metabolism of cGMP in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 121 : 634-640.

13.  Decker K., Birmelin M., Bhatnagar R. and Rieder H. (1982) "Role of Ca ++ and prostaglandins in response of kuffer cells to external stimuli".In Sinusoidal Liver Cells (Ed. E. Wisse and D.L. Knook) Elsevier Biomed. Press Holland, pp 367-379.

12.  Bhatnagar R., Schade U., Rietschel E.T. and Decker, K. (1982) Involvement of prostaglandin E and cAMP in lipopolysaccride stimulated collagenase release in rat kupffer cells. Eur. J. Biochem. 125 : 125-130.

11.  Bhatnagar R. and Decker K. (1981) Collagenase assay using 3H- methylcollagen. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 5 : 147-152.

10.  Bhatnagar R., Schiermer R., Ernst M. and Decker K. (1981) Superoxide release by zymosan stimulated kupffer cells in vitro. Eur. J. Biochem. 119 : 171-175.

9.    Banerjee N., Bhatnagar R. and Viswanathan L. (1981) Inhibitionn of glycolysis by furfural in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur. J. Microbiol Biotech. 11 : 226-228.

8.    Banerjee N., Bhatnagar R. and Viswanathan L. (1981) Development of resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae against inhibitory effects of Browning reaction products Enz. Microb. Tech. 3 : 24-28.

7.    Bhatnagar R., Banerjee N., Srivastava H.C., and Prabhu K.A. (1981) Structure of dextran synthesized by a new strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Carbohy. Res. 89 : 346-349.

6.    Srivastava G.S., Bhatnagar R., Viswanathan R. and Venkitasubramanian T.A. (1980)  Microsomal and mitrochondrial cytochromes in acutely hypoxic rat liver and lung Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys. 17: 130-134.

5.    Banerjee N., Bhatnagar R. and Viswanathan L. (1980) Inhibition of growth and lactic acid synthesis by maltol in Lactobacillus casie and its reversal by glutamic acid  Experentia 36: 313-314.

4.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1976) Studies on the removal of dextran by dextranase Proc. Sug. Tech. Assoc. 42 : 101-106

3.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1975) Effect of disinfectants on dextran forming Leuconostoc bacteria. Proc. Sug. Tech. Assoc. 41: 95-99.

2.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1975). Preliminary studies on the continuous fermentation of dextran. Proc. Sug. Tech. Assoc. 41: 91-94.

1.    Bhatnagar R. and Prabhu K.A. (1974) Studies on the use of cane waste molasses in the production of dextran. Proc. Sug. Tech. Assoc. 40: 23-27.

List of on-going projects-:

S. no. Title of the project

Funding agency

Fund obtained (In Rupees)


1. Development of transgenic Brassica juncea expressing normal and mutated edema factor genes for the development of vaccine against anthrax DST 34,70,000/- 2010-2013
2. Identification and characterization of immunodominant B-cell epitopes that confer protective immunity against anthrax using nanoparticle assisted drug delivery system DBT 54,10,400/- 2011-2014
3. Role of heat shock proteins as immunomoduclators and their role in immunity against B. anthracis infection CSIR 29,55,730/- 2011-2014
4. Development of diagnostic kit for detection of M. tuberculosis complex and mycobacterial species DST 3,16,94,600/- 2011-2014
5. Development of novel antibiotics of control of infectious diseases in pathogenic bacteria through induction of programmed cell death ICMR 28,97,280/- 2012-2015
6. Role of multifunctional plasminogen binding Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyrogenase of B. anthracis ICMR 61,04,745/- 2012-2015
7. Development of recombinant Omp25 based vaccine against brucellosis for humans DBT 1,14,69,987/- 2012-2015
8. Characterization and adjuvant potential of Poly-α-L-glutamine of M. tuberculosis H37Rv DBT 47,32,000/- 2012-2015














List of Completed projects-:




GRANT ( In Lakhs.)

Rabies DNA Vaccine: Bioprocess optimization & immunogenicity studies  2009-2013 DST 128.94
Cloning Expression and Molecular………….. Bacillus Anthracis 2009 – 2012 ICMR 15.34
Therapeutic intervention of anthrax: A molecular Medicine approach 2006 - 2009 ICMR 23.44
Development of a bispecific single chain antibody neutralizing edema toxin and lethal toxin of anthrax 2008 – 2011 DST 159.502
Creation of p3 facility…….causing pathogen Bacillus Anthracis 2007 – 2011 DBT 290
Characterization of DNA Gyrase from Bacillus anthracis : A potential target for new drugs 2008 – 2011 ICMR 27.00>
Genomwide reconstruction & analysis of bacillus anthracis metabolic network & its transcriptional regulation 2009 – 2011 ICMR 21.21
Development of Mycobacterial Antigen Delivery System using Anthrax adenylate cyclase 2006 – 2010 DBT 78.43
Production of recombinant vaccine against anthrax using yeast expression system 2006 – 2009 ICMR 24.03
Cloning and Expression of non-toxic variant of protective antigen for developing recombinant vaccine against anthrax 1995 – 1999 DBT 55.00
Generation of non-toxic Protective antigen molecules for development of recombinant anthrax vaccine< 1998 – 2008 DBT 45.20
Production of thermostable protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis:  Computional and genetic engineering approach 1999 – 2002 DBT 18.71
Transgenic plants as a source of edible vaccine against anthrax 2000 – 2003 NATP –World bank 46.20
Generation of Non-toxic Lethal Factor and Edema Factor for the development of improved vaccine against anthrax  DBT 2002 - 2005 DBT 35.09
Search for Novel bioinsecticides from Xenorhabdus nematophilus 2002 – 2005 Ministry of Environment & Forest, GOI 17.93
New strategies to control Anthrax – Mapping of the lethal factor binding domain of Protective Antigen of anthrax toxin 2002 – 2005 ICAR 43.83
Programmed cell death in pathogenic bacteria:- potential for developing novel antibiotics to control infectious diseases 2005 – 2008 DBT 51.66
Development of DNA vaccine against Anthrax 2008 – 2010 DBT> 83.54
Creation of Catalytically inactive variants of edema factor and lethal factor from B. anthracis and its application in vaccine development against anthrax 2006 - 2009 CSIR 14.00
Development of DNA vaccine against rabies using targeted vectors for veterinary use 2005 – 2009 DBT `68.21