M.Sc. Courses
Semester
I 
Semester
II 
PS 415 Physics Laboratory I (6 credits)  PS 427 Computational Physics (3 credits) 
Semester
III 
Semester
IV 
PS 512 Subatomic Physics (3 credits) 
PS 522 Project (4 credits) 
PS 513 Statistical Mechanics II (3 credits)  Electives * 
PS 514 Atoms and Molecules (3 credits)  PS 523 Astrophysics, Gravitation and Cosmology (3 credits) 
PS 515 Physics Laboratory III (6 credits)  PS 524 Quantum Field Theory (3 credits) 
PS 525 Biophysics (3 credits)  
PS 526 Laser Physics (3 credits)  
PS 527 Advanced Condensed Matter Physics (3 credits)  
PS 528 Nonlinear Dynamics (3 credits) 
*Three or more courses from the following list will be offered in Semester IV. M.Sc. students may also take any of the PrePh.D. courses offered as elective, if recommended by the M.Sc. Student Advisor. Every M.Sc. student is required to take three electives.
1. Matrices
Linear vector spaces, matrix spaces, linear operators, eigenvectors and eigenvalues, matrix diagonalization, special matrices.
2. Group Theory
Symmetries and groups, multiplication table and representations, permutation group, translation and rotation groups, O(N) and U(N) groups.
3. Complex Analysis
Analytic functions, CauchyRiemann conditions, classification of singularities, Cauchy's theorem, Taylor and Laurent expansions, analytic continuation, residue theorem, evaluation of definite integrals, summation of series, gamma function, zeta function, method of steepest descent.
4. Ordinary Differential Equations and Special Functions
Linear ordinary differential equations and their singularities, series solution of second order equations, hypergeometric and Bessel functions, classical polynomials, Sturm Liouville problem, expansion in orthogonal functions.
References:

G.B. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists.

P. Dennery and A. Krzywicki, Mathematics for Physicists.

P.K. Chattopadhyay, Mathematical Physics.

A.W. Joshi, Matrices and Tensors in Physics.

R.V. Churchill and J.W. Brown, Complex Variables and Applications.

P.M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics (Volume I & II).

M.R. Spiegel, Complex Variables.
1. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulations of Mechanics
Calculus of variations, Hamilton's principle of least action, Lagrange's equations of motion, conservation laws, systems with a single degree of freedom, rigid body dynamics, symmetrical top, Hamilton's equations of motion, phase plots, fixed points and their stabilities.
2. TwoBody Central Force Problem
Equation of motion and first integrals, classification of orbits, Kepler problem, scattering in central force field.
3. Small Oscillations
Linearization of equations of motion, free vibrations and normal coordinates, forced oscillations.
4. Special Theory of Relativity
Lorentz transformation, relativistic kinematics and dynamics, E=mc2.
5. Hamiltonian Mechanics and Chaos
Canonical transformations, Poisson brackets, HamiltonJacobi theory, actionangle variables, perturbation theory, integrable systems, introduction to chaotic dynamics.
References:

H. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics.

L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, Mechanics.

I.C. Percival and D. Richards, Introduction to Dynamics.

J.V. Jose and E.J. Saletan, Classical Dynamics: A Contemporary Approach.

E.T. Whittaker, A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies.

N.C. Rana and P.S. Joag, Classical Mechanics.
1. Introduction
Empirical basis, waveparticle duality, electron diffraction, notion of state vector and its probability interpretation.
2. Structure of Quantum Mechanics
Operators and observables, significance of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, commutation relations, uncertainty principle, measurement in quantum theory.
3. Quantum Dynamics
Timedependent Schrödinger equation, stationary states and their significance, timeindependent Schrödinger equation.
4. Onedimensional Schrödinger Equation
Freeparticle solution, wave packets, particle in a square well potential, transmission through a potential barrier, simple harmonic oscillator by wave equation and operator methods, charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, coherent states.
5. Spherically Symmetric Potentials
Separation of variables in spherical polar coordinates, orbital angular momentum, parity, spherical harmonics, free particle in spherical polar coordinates, square well potential, hydrogen atom.
References:

C. CohenTannoudji, B. Diu and F. Laloe, Quantum Mechanics (Volume I).

L.I. Schiff, Quantum Mechanics.

E. Merzbacher, Quantum Mechanics.

R.P. Feynman, Feynman Lectures on Physics (Volume 3).

A. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics (Volume I).

R. Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics.
1. G.M. Counter.
2. Experiments with microwaves.
3. Electrical resistance of a superconductor, metal and a semiconductor.
4. Work function of Tungsten, Richardson's equation.
5. Hall effect.
6. Thermal conductivity of Teflon.
7. Susceptibility of Gadolinium.
8. Transmission line, propagation of mechanical and EM waves.
9. Dielectric constant of ice.
10. Elastic properties of a solid using piezoelectric oscillator.
11. Measurement of e/m by Thomson effect.
12. Measurement of Planck's constant by photoelectric effect.
13. Michelson interferometer.
Note: Each student is required to perform at least 8 of the above experiments.
1. Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics
Symmetry operations and unitary transformations, conservation principles, space and time translations, rotation, space inversion and time reversal, symmetry and degeneracy.
2. Angular Momentum
Rotation operators, angular momentum algebra, eigenvalues of J^{2} and J_{z}, spinors and Pauli matrices, addition of angular momenta.
3. Identical Particles
Indistinguishability, symmetric and antisymmetric wave functions, incorporation of spin, Slater determinants, Pauli exclusion principle.
4. Timeindependent Approximation Methods
Nondegenerate perturbation theory, degenerate case, Stark effect, Zeeman effect and other examples, variational methods, WKB method, tunnelling.
5. Timedependent Problems
Schrödinger and Heisenberg picture, timedependent perturbation theory, transition probability calculations, golden rule, adiabatic approximation, sudden approximation, beta decay as an example.
6. Scattering Theory
Differential crosssection, scattering of a wave packet, integral equation for the scattering amplitude, Born approximation, method of partial waves, low energy scattering and bound states, resonance scattering.
References:
Same as in Quantum Mechanics I plus
1. C. CohenTannoudji, B. Diu and F. Laloe, Quantum Mechanics (Volume II).
2. A. Messiah, Quantum Mechanics (Volume II).
3. S. Flügge, Practical Quantum Mechanics.
4. J.J. Sakurai, Modern Quantum Mechanics.
5. K. Gottfried, Quantum Mechanics.
Statistical Mechanics I
PS 422
1. Elementary Probability Theory
Binomial, Poisson and Gaussian distributions, central limit theorem.
2. Review of Thermodynamics
Extensive and intensive variables, laws of thermodynamics, Legendre transformations and thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, applications of thermodynamics to (a) ideal gas, (b) magnetic material, and (c) dielectric material.
3. Formalism of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics
Concept of phase space, Liouville's theorem, basic postulates of statistical mechanics, ensembles: microcanonical, canonical, grand canonical, and isobaric, connection to thermodynamics, fluctuations, applications of various ensembles, equation of state for a nonideal gas, Van der Waals' equation of state, Meyer cluster expansion, virial coefficients.
4. Quantum Statistics
FermiDirac and BoseEinstein statistics. Applications of the formalism to:
(a) Ideal Bose gas, Debye theory of specific heat, properties of blackbody radiation, Bose Einstein condensation, experiments on atomic BEC, BEC in a harmonic potential.
(b) Ideal Fermi gas, properties of simple metals, Pauli paramagnetism, electronic specific heat, white dwarf stars.
References:

F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics.

K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics.

R.K. Pathria, Statistical Mechanics.

D.A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics.

S.K. Ma, Statistical Mechanics.
1. Electrostatics
Differential equation for electric field, Poisson and Laplace equations, formal solution for potential with Green's functions, boundary value problems, examples of image method and Green's function method, solutions of Laplace equation in cylindrical and spherical coordinates by orthogonal functions, dielectrics, polarization of a medium, electrostatic energy.
2. Magnetostatics
BiotSavart law, differential equation for static magnetic field, vector potential, magnetic field from localized current distributions, examples of magnetostatic problems, Faraday's law of induction, magnetic energy of steady current distributions.
3. Maxwell's Equations
Displacement current, Maxwell's equations, vector and scalar potentials, gauge symmetry, Coulomb and Lorentz gauges, electromagnetic energy and momentum, conservation laws, inhomogeneous wave equation and Green's function solution.
4. Electromagnetic Waves
Plane waves in a dielectric medium, reflection and refraction at dielectric interfaces, frequency dispersion in dielectrics and metals, dielectric constant and anomalous dispersion, wave propagation in one dimension, group velocity, metallic wave guides, boundary conditions at metallic surfaces, propagation modes in wave guides, resonant modes in cavities.
5. Radiation
Field of a localized oscillating source, fields and radiation in dipole and quadrupole approximations, antenna, radiation by moving charges, LienardWiechert potentials, total power radiated by an accelerated charge, Lorentz formula.
6. Covariant Formulation of Electrodynamics
Fourvectors relevant to electrodynamics, electromagnetic field tensor and Maxwell's equations, transformation of fields, fields of uniformly moving particles.
7. Concepts of Plasma Physics
Formation of plasma, Debye theory of screening, plasma oscillations, motion of charges in electromagnetic fields, magnetoplasma, plasma confinement, hydromagnetic waves.
References:

J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics.

D.J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics.

J.R. Reitz, F.J. Milford and R.W. Christy, Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory.

W.K.H. Panofsky and M. Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism.

F.F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion.
1. Overview of computer organization, hardware, software, scientific programming in FORTRAN and/or C, C++.
2. Numerical Techniques
Sorting, interpolation, extrapolation, regression, numerical integration, quadrature, random number generation, linear algebra and matrix manipulations, inversion, diagonalization, eigenvectors and eigenvalues, integration of initialvalue problems, Euler, RungeKutta, and Verlet schemes, root searching, optimization, fast Fourier transforms.
3. Simulation Techniques
Monte Carlo methods, molecular dynamics, simulation methods for the Ising model and atomic fluids, simulation methods for quantummechanical problems, timedependent Schrödinger equation, discussion of selected problems in percolation, cellular automata, nonlinear dynamics, traffic problems, diffusionlimited aggregation, celestial mechanics, etc.
4. Parallel Computation
Introduction to parallel computation.
References:

V. Rajaraman, Computer Programming in Fortran 77.

W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky and W.T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN 77: The Art of Scientific Computing. (Similar volumes in C, C++.)

H.M. Antia, Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers.

D.W. Heermann, Computer Simulation Methods in Theoretical Physics.

H. Gould and J. Tobochnik, An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods.
 J.M. Thijssen, Computational Physics.
1. Introduction
Survey of network theorems and network analysis, AC and DC bridges, transistors at low and high frequencies, FET.
2. Electronic Devices
Diodes, lightemitting diodes, photodiodes, negativeresistance devices, pnpn characteristics, transistors (FET, MoSFET, bipolar).
Basic differential amplifier circuit, operational amplifier characteristics and applications, simple analog computer, analog integrated circuits.
3. Digital Electronics
Gates, combinational and sequential digital systems, flipflops, counters, multichannel analyzer.
4. Electronic Instruments
Power supplies, oscillators, digital oscilloscopes, counters, phasesensitive detectors, introduction to microprocessors.
References:

P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics.

J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics.

J.J. Cathey, Schaum's Outline of Electronic Devices and Circuits.

M. Forrest, Electronic Sensor Circuits and Projects.

W. Kleitz, Digital Electronics: A Practical Approach.

J.H. Moore, C.C. Davis and M.A. Coplan, Building Scientific Apparatus.
1. To trace IV characteristic curves of diodes and transistors on a CRO, and learn their uses in electronic circuits.
2. Negative feedback and amplifier characteristics.
3. Uses of differential amplifier and op amps in linear circuits.
4. Design of simple logic gates using transistors.
5. To study transfer characteristics of a regenerative comparator, to design a time marker, sample, hold and multiplier circuits, to design a sweep generator using a Schmitt trigger.
6. AD/DA converter/GPIB interfacing.
7. Circuit simulation using SPICE.
8. Microwave generators.
9. Experiments with timers/pulse generators etc.
10. Digital electronics.
11. Microprocessorbased experiment.
12. Project (design of audio amplifier/digital clock/regulated power supply).
Note: Each student is required to perform at least 8 of the above experiments.
Condensed Matter Physics
PS 511
1. Metals
Drude theory, DC conductivity, Hall effect and magnetoresistance, AC conductivity, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric effects, FermiDirac distribution, thermal properties of an electron gas, WiedemannFranz law, critique of freeelectron model.
2. Crystal Lattices
Bravais lattice, symmetry operations and classification of Bravais lattices, common crystal structures, reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zone, Xray diffraction, Bragg's law, Von Laue's formulation, diffraction from noncrystalline systems.
3. Classification of Solids
Band classifications, covalent, molecular and ionic crystals, nature of bonding, cohesive energies, hydrogen bonding.
4. Electron States in Crystals
Periodic potential and Bloch's theorem, weak potential approximation, energy gaps, Fermi surface and Brillouin zones, Harrison construction, level density.
5. Electron Dynamics
Wave packets of Bloch electrons, semiclassical equations of motion, motion in static electric and magnetic fields, theory of holes.
6. Lattice Dynamics
Failure of the static lattice model, harmonic approximation, vibrations of a onedimensional lattice, onedimensional lattice with basis, models of threedimensional lattices, quantization of vibrations, Einstein and Debye theories of specific heat, phonon density of states, neutron scattering.
7. Semiconductors
General properties and band structure, carrier statistics, impurities, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, pn junctions, equilibrium fields and densities in junctions, drift and diffusion currents.
8. Magnetism
Diamagnetism, paramagnetism of insulators and metals, ferromagnetism, CurieWeiss law, introduction to other types of magnetic order.
9. Superconductors
Phenomenology, review of basic properties, thermodynamics of superconductors, London's equation and Meissner effect, TypeI and TypeII superconductors.
References:

C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics.

N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin, Solid State Physics.

J.M. Ziman, Principles of the Theory of Solids.

A.J. Dekker, Solid State Physics.

G. Burns, Solid State Physics.

M.P. Marder, Condensed Matter Physics.
1. Nuclear Physics
Discovery of the nucleus, Rutherford formula, form factors, nuclear size, characteristics of nuclei, angular momentum, magnetic moment, parity, quadrupole moment.
Mass defect, bindingenergy statistics, Weiszacker mass formula, nuclear stability, Alphadecay, tunnelling theory, fission, liquid drop model.
Nuclear forces, nucleonnucleon scattering, deuteron problem, properties of nuclear potentials, Yukawa's hypothesis.
Magic numbers, shell model, calculation of nuclear parameters, basic ideas of nuclear reactions.
2. Particle Physics
Relativistic quantum theory, Dirac's equation and its relativistic covariance, intrinsic spin and magnetic moment, negative energy solution and the concept of antiparticle.
Accelerators and detectors, discovery of mesons and strange particles, isospin and internal symmetries, neutrino oscillations, quarks, parity violation, Kmesons, CP violation.
3. Weak Interactions
Fermi's theory of betadecay, basic ideas of gauge symmetry, spontaneous symmetry breaking, elements of electroweak theory, discovery of Wbosons.
4. Strong Interactions
Deep inelastic scattering, scaling concepts, quark model interpretation, colour quantum number, asymptotic freedom, quark confinement, standard model.
References:

G.D. Coughlan and J.E. Dodd, The Ideas of Particle Physics.

D. Griffiths, Introduction to Elementary Particles.

D.H. Perkins, Introduction to High Energy Physics.

I. Kaplan, Nuclear Physics.

R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam, Nuclear Physics.

M.A. Preston and R.K. Bhaduri, Structure of the Nucleus.

M.G. Bowler, Nuclear Physics.
Statistical Mechanics II
PS 513
1. Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena
Thermodynamics of phase transitions, metastable states, Van der Waals' equation of state, coexistence of phases, Landau theory, critical phenomena at secondorder phase transitions, spatial and temporal fluctuations, scaling hypothesis, critical exponents, universality classes.
2. Ising Model
Ising model, meanfield theory, exact solution in one dimension, renormalization in one dimension.
3. Nonequilibrium Systems
Systems out of equilibrium, kinetic theory of a gas, approach to equilibrium and the Htheorem, Boltzmann equation and its application to transport problems, master equation and irreversibility, simple examples, ergodic theorem.
Brownian motion, Langevin equation, fluctuationdissipation theorem, Einstein relation, FokkerPlanck equation.
4. Correlation Functions
Time correlation functions, linear response theory, Kubo formula, Onsager relations.
5. Coarsegrained Models
Hydrodynamics, NavierStokes equation for fluids, simple solutions for fluid flow, conservation laws and diffusion.
References:

K. Huang, Statistical Mechanics.

R.K. Pathria, Statistical Mechanics.

E.M. Lifshitz and L.P. Pitaevskii, Physical Kinetics.

D.A. McQuarrie, Statistical Mechanics.

L.P. Kadanoff, Statistical Physics: Statistics, Dynamics and Renormalization.

P.M. Chaikin and T.C. Lubensky, Principles of Condensed Matter Physics.
1. Manyelectron Atoms
Review of He atom, ground state and first excited state, quantum virial theorem, ThomasFermi method, determinantal wave function, Hartree and HartreeFock method, periodic table and atomic properties: ionization potential, electron affinity, Hund's rule.
2. Molecular Quantum Mechanics
Hydrogen molecular ion, hydrogen molecule, HeitlerLondon method, molecular orbital, BornOppenheimer approximation, bonding, directed valence.
3. Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy
Fine and hyperfine structure of atoms, electronic, vibrational and rotational spectra for diatomic molecules, role of symmetry, selection rules, term schemes, applications to electronic and vibrational problems.
4. Second Quantization
Basis sets for identicalparticle systems, number space representation, creation and annihilation operators, representation of dynamical operators and the Hamiltonian, simple applications.
5. Interaction of Atoms with Radiation
Atoms in an electromagnetic field, absorption and induced emission, spontaneous emission and linewidth, Einstein A and B coefficients, density matrix formalism, twolevel atoms in a radiation field.
References:

I.N. Levine, Quantum Chemistry.

R. McWeeny, Coulson's Valence.

L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics.

M. Karplus and R.N. Porter, Atoms and Molecules: An Introduction for Students of Physical Chemistry.

P.W. Atkins and R.S. Friedman, Molecular Quantum Mechanics.

M. Tinkham, Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics.

L. Fetter and J. D. Walecka, Quantum Theory of ManyParticle Systems.

W.A. Harrison, Applied Quantum Mechanics.
1. Electronspin resonance.
2. Faraday rotation/Kerr effect.
3. Interfacial tension and Phase separation kinetics.
4. Reaction kinetics by spectrophotometer and conductivity.
5. Study of color centres by spectrophotometer.
6. Alpha, Beta and Gamma ray spectrometer.
7. Mössbauer spectrometer.
8. Sizing nanostructures (UVVIS spectroscopy).
9. Magnetoresistance and its field dependence.
10. Xray diffraction.
11. Compton scattering.
12. Adiabatic compressibility.
13. Solidliquid phase diagram for a mixture.
Note: Each student is required to perform at least 8 of the above experiments.
Modern Experiments: A Survey
PS 521
Note: This course will familiarize
students with some landmark experiments in physics through the original papers
which reported these experiments. A representative list is as follows:
1. Mössbauer effect.
2. PoundRebka experiment to measure gravitational red shift.
3. Parity violation experiment of Wu et al.
4. Superfluidity of He3.
5. Cosmic microwave background radiation.
6. Helicity of the neutrino.
7. Quantum Hall effect  integral and fractional.
8. Laser cooling of atoms.
9. Ion traps.
10. BoseEinstein condensation.
11. Josephson tunneling.
12. Atomic clocks.
13. Interferometry for gravitational waves.
14. Quantum entanglement experiments: Teleportation experiment, Aspect's
experiment on Bell's inequality.
15. Inelastic neutron scattering.
16. CP violation.
17. J/Psi resonance
18. Verification of predictions of general theory of relativity by binarypulsar
and other experiments.
19 Precision measurements of magnetic moment of electron.
20. Libchaber experiment on perioddoubling route to chaos.
21. Anfinson's experiment on protein folding.
22. Scanning tunnelling microscope.
Astrophysics, Gravitation and Cosmology
PS 523
1. Physics of the Universe
Astronomical observations and instruments, stellar spectra and structure, stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis and formation of elements, evolution and origin of galaxies, quasars, pulsars, expansion of the universe, bigbang model, CMBR, anisotropy.
2. General Relativity
Review of special theory of relativity, fourvector formulation of Lorentz transformation, covariant formulation of physical laws, introduction to general relativity, principle of equivalence, tensor analysis and Riemannian geometry, curvature and stressenergy tensors, gravitational field equations, geodesics and particle trajectories, Schwarschild solution, Kerr solution, gravitational waves, relativistic stellar structure, TOV equation, basic cosmology.
References:
 K.D. Abhyankar, Astrophysics: Stars and Galaxies.
 J.V. Narlikar, An Introduction to Cosmology.
 C.W. Misner, K. Thorne, J.A. Wheeler, Gravitation.
 R. Adler, M. Bazin and M. Schiffer, Introduction to General Relativity.
 T. Padmanabhan, Cosmology and Astrophysics through Problems.
1. String waves, water waves, etc. as examples of classical fields, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of a vibrating string fixed at both ends in analogy with Newtonian particles.
2. Relativistic kinematics, relativistic waves, KleinGordon (KG) equation as a relativistic wave equation, treatment of the KG equation as a classical wave equation: its Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, Noether's theorem and derivation of energymomentum and angular momentum tensors as consequence of Poincaré symmetry, internal symmetry and the associated conserved current.
3. Canonical quantization of the KG field, solution of KG theory in Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures, expansion in terms of creation and annihilation operators, definition of the vacuum and Nparticle eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, vacuum expectation values, propagators, spin and statistics of the KG quantum.
4. Review of Dirac equation and its quantization, use of anticommutators, creation and destruction operators of particles and antiparticles, Dirac propagator, energy, momentum and angular momentum, spin and statistics of Dirac quanta.
5. Review of free Maxwell's equations, Lagrangian, gauge transformation and gauge fixing, Hamiltonian, quantization in terms of transverse delta functions, expansion in terms of creation operators, spin, statistics and propagator of the photon.
6. Introduction to interacting quantum fields.
References:
 C. Itzykson and J.B. Zuber, Quantum Field Theory.
 J.D. Bjorken and S.D. Drell, Relativistic Quantum Fields.
 L. Ryder, Quantum Field Theory.
 V.B. Berestetskii, E.M. Lifshitz and L.P. Pitaevskii, Quantum Electrodynamics.
 M.E. Peskin and D.V. Schroeder, An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory.
1. Introduction
Evolution of biosphere, aerobic and anaerobic concepts, models of evolution of living organisms.
2. Physics of Polymers
Nomenclature, definitions of molecular weights, polydispersity, degree of polymerization, possible geometrical shapes, chirality in biomolecules, structure of water and ice, hydrogen bond and hydrophobocity.
3. Static Properties
Random flight model, freelyrotating chain model, scaling relations, concept of various radii (i.e., radius of gyration, hydrodynamic radius, endtoend length), endtoend length distributions, concept of segments and Kuhn segment length, excluded volume interactions and chain swelling, Gaussian coil, concept of theta and good solvents with examples, importance of second virial coefficient.
4. Polyelectrolytes
Concepts and examples, DebyeHuckel theory, screening length in electrostatic interactions.
5. Transport Properties
(a) Diffusion: Irreversible thermodynamics, GibbsDuhem equation, phenomenological forces and fluxes, osmotic pressure and second virial coefficient, generalized diffusion equation, StokesEinstein relation, diffusion in threecomponent systems, balance of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic forces, concentration dependence, Smoluchowski equation and reduction to FokkerPlanck equation, concept of impermeable and freedraining chains.
(b) Viscosity and Sedimentation: Einstein relation, intrinsic viscosity of polymer chains, Huggins equation of viscosity, scaling relations, KirkwoodRiseman theory, irreversible thermodynamics and sedimentation, sedimentation equation, concentration dependence.
6. Physics of Proteins
Nomenclature and structure of amino acids, conformations of polypeptide chains, primary, secondary and higherorder structures, Ramachandran map, peptide bond and its consequences, pHpK balance, protein polymerization models, helixcoil transitions in thermodynamic and partition function approach, coilglobule transitions, protein folding, protein denaturation models, binding isotherms, binding equilibrium, Hill equation and Scatchard plot.
7. Physics of Enzymes
Chemical kinetics and catalysis, kinetics of simple enzymatic reactions, enzymesubstrate interactions, cooperative properties.
8. Physics of Nucleic Acids
Structure of nucleic acids, special features and properties, DNA and RNA, WatsonCrick picture and duplex stabilization model, thermodynamics of melting and kinetics of denaturation of duplex, loops and cyclization of DNA, ligand interactions, genetic code and protein biosynthesis, DNA replication.
9. Experimental Techniques
Measurement concepts and error analysis, light and neutron scattering, Xray diffraction, UV spectroscopy, CD and ORD, electrophoresis, viscometry and rheology, DSC and dielectric relaxation studies.
10. Recent Topics in BioNanophysics
References:

M.V. Volkenstein, General Biophysics.

C.R. Cantor and P.R. Schimmel, Biophysical Chemistry Part III: The Behavior of Biological Macromolecules.

C. Tanford, Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules.

S.F. Sun, Physical Chemistry of Macromolecules: Basic Principles and Issues.
1. Introduction
Masers versus lasers, components of a laser system, amplification by population inversion, oscillation condition, types of lasers: solidstate (ruby, Nd:YAG, semiconductor), gas (HeNe, CO2 excimer), liquid (organic dye) lasers.
2. AtomField Interactions
Lorenz theory, Einstein's rate equations, applications to laser transitions with pumping, two, three and fourlevel schemes, threshold pumping and inversion.
3. Optical Resonators
Closed versus open cavities, modes of a symmetric confocal optical resonator, stability, quality factor.
4. Semiclassical Laser Theory
Density matrix for a twolevel atom, Lamb equation for the classical field, threshold condition, disorderorder phase transition analogy.
5. Coherence
Concepts of coherence and correlation functions, coherent states of the electromagnetic field, minimum uncertainty states, unit degree of coherence, Poisson photon statistics.
6. Pulsed Operation of Lasers
Qswitching, electrooptic and acoustooptic modulation, saturable absorbers, mode locking.
7. Applications of Lasers
Introduction to atom optics, Doppler cooling of atoms, introduction to nonlinear optics: self(de) focusing, secondharmonic generation (phasematching conditions).
References:

K. Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak, Lasers: Theory and Applications.

A.K. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics.

W. Demtroeder, Laser Spectroscopy.

B.B. Laud, Lasers and Nonlinear Optics.

M. Sargent III, M.O. Scully and W.E. Lamb, Jr., Laser Physics.

M.O. Scully and M.S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics.

P. Meystre and M. Sargent III, Elements of Quantum Optics.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics.
Advanced Condensed Matter Physics
PS 527
1. Dielectric Properties of Solids
Dielectric constant of metal and insulator using phenomenological theory (Maxwell's equations), polarization and ferroelectrics, interband transitions, KramersKronig relations, polarons, excitons, optical properties of metals and insulators.
2. Transport Properties of Solids
Boltzmann transport equation, resistivity of metals and semiconductors, thermoelectric phenomena, Onsager coefficients.
3. Manyelectron Systems
Sommerfeld expansion, HartreeFock approximation, exchange interactions, concept of quasiparticles, introduction to Fermi liquid theory, screening, plasmons.
4. Introduction to Strongly Correlated Systems
Narrow band solids, Wannier orbitals and tightbinding method, Mott insulator, electronic and magnetic properties of oxides, introduction to Hubbard model.
5. Magnetism
Magnetic interactions, HeitlerLondon method, exchange and superexchange, magnetic moments and crystalfield effects, ferromagnetism, spinwave excitations and thermodynamics, antiferromagnetism.
6. Superconductivity
Basic phenomena, London equations, Cooper pairs, coherence, GinzburgLandau theory, BCS theory, Josephson effect, SQUID, excitations and energy gap, magnetic properties of typeI and typeII superconductors, flux lattice, introduction to hightemperature superconductors.
References:

N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin, Solid State Physics.

D. Pines, Elementary Excitations in Solids.

S. Raimes, The Wave Mechanics of Electrons in Metals.

P. Fazekas, Lecture Notes on Electron Correlation and Magnetism.

M. Tinkham, Introduction to Superconductivity.

M. Marder, Condensed Matter Physics.
1. Introduction to Dynamical Systems
Physics of nonlinear systems, dynamical equations and constants of motion, phase space, fixed points, stability analysis, bifurcations and their classification, Poincaré section and iterative maps.
2. Dissipative Systems
Onedimensional noninvertible maps, simple and strange attractors, iterative maps, perioddoubling and universality, intermittency, invariant measure, Lyapunov exponents, higherdimensional systems, Hénon map, Lorenz equations, fractal geometry, generalized dimensions, examples of fractals.
3. Hamiltonian Systems
Integrability, Liouville's theorem, actionangle variables, introduction to perturbation techniques, KAM theorem, areapreserving maps, concepts of chaos and stochasticity.
4. Advanced Topics
Selections from quantum chaos, cellular automata and coupled map lattices, pattern formation, solitons and completely integrable systems, turbulence.
References:

E. Ott, Chaos in Dynamical Systems.

E.A. Jackson, Perspectives of Nonlinear Dynamics (Volumes 1 and 2).

A.J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Lieberman, Regular and Stochastic Motion.

A.M. Ozorio de Almeida, Hamiltonian Systems: Chaos and Quantization.

M. Tabor, Chaos and Integrability in Nonlinear Dynamics.

M. Lakshmanan and S. Rajasekar, Nonlinear Dynamics: Integrability, Chaos and Patterns.

H.J. Stockmann, Quantum Chaos: An Introduction.