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WA 605 : Colonial Impact and African Nationalism (2 credits) 

WA 610 : Political System in Africa (2 credits) 

WA 611 : Africa and the World (2 credits) 

WA 613 : Research Methodology (4 credits) 

WA 618 : Ideologies in African (2 credits) 

WA 620 : Government and Politics in North Africa (2 credits)


Course Details


Course (PhD) : WA 605
CourseTitle : Colonial Impact and African Nationalism
Course Type (Core/Optional): Core
Course Teacher : Prof Ajay K. Dubey
Credits : 3
Contact hours : 2 per week

Course Objectives

The Centre intends to equip student with transformation of African continent in economic, social, cultural and political areas as a result of colonization and its impact on formation and rise of national feeling under different colonial territories of Africa.


Learning Outcomes

  1. Students will be able to differentiate different Colonial legacies in Africa
  2. They will be able to assess Colonial linkages and their impact in current time.
  3. Students will have skills to identify the feasibility and challenges of independent domestic and foreign policies of each country.
  4. Student will be able to assess comparatively roles of foreign colonial powers in Africa

Evaluation Methods: Sessional Work and End-Semester examination

Course Content

  • Pre-Colonial empires
  • Scramble for Africa
  • African resistance and reaction to colonial rules
  • Nature of Colonialism
  • Comparative political Institutions
  • Processes of change - social, economic and cultural
  • Origins and evolution of African nationalism
  • Rise of mass parties
  • Assessment of the colonial legacy


  1. Adu. A. Boahaen, African Perspective on Colonialism, (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992).
  2. Roland Oliver and Anthony Atmore, Africa since 1800: (Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  3. John Hiffee, Africans: The History of a continent (Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  4. Leuan LI Griffiths, The Atlas of African Affairs, London, Routeldge, 1993.
  5. John, Thornton, African and Africans in the making of the Atlantic Word, 1400-1680, Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  6. Basil Davidson, The Black Man’s Burden: Africa and the course of the nation-state, London, James Currey, 1992.
  7. Naomi Chazan (ed.) Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa, Boulder, Lynne Reinner Publishers, 1992.
  8. April Gorden & Donald Gordon (eds.), Understanding Contemporary Africa, Boulder, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992.
  9. Anthony Kirk – Greena and Daniel Bach (eds.), State and Society in Francophone African since Independence New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
  10. Neli Parsons, A new history of Southern Africa, London, Macmillan, 1993.
  11. T.R.H. Davenport, South Africa, A Modern History, Houndmills, Macmillan Press, 1991.


Course Number : WA 610

Course Number:    WA 610
Course Title:    Political System in Africa
Course Type (Core/Optional) :     Core
Course Teacher:  
 Dr. Gayettri Dixit
Credits:    2
Contact hours:    2 per week
Instruction Method:    Lectures, Seminars/Tutorials
Evaluation Method:    Sessional Work and Semester Examination.
Course duration:    One Semester (Winter)

Course Objectives:

  • Introducing students to the key theories, ideologies, concepts, and academics involved in the study of African politics.
  • Giving a thorough account of the historical emergence of the African state, its governing institutions, and the major discussions surrounding the fight for democratic rule and long-term development in Africa.
  • Examining a number of the key social, economic, and political challenges, as well as the related processes, that are currently affecting the study of African politics in the age of globalisation.

Learning Outcomes:
The students will be able to-

  1. Conduct academic research on relevant topics, and then explain the relevant research findings in a way that shows how prepared a student is about the literature on African politics.
  2. Exhibit a thorough awareness of the main ideas, themes, and discussions prevalent in the discourse on African politics.
  3. Have a thorough awareness of the contributions that issues like colonialism, nationalism and the Cold War made to the creation of contemporary political systems, socio-economic development plans, and governance frameworks in Africa.
  4. Take part in knowledgeable discussions regarding the historical emergence of African governments, their governing structures, and current threats to democratic rule and sustainable development.

Course Content:

  • The problem of independence and National integration
  • Post-Colonial State in Africa: Issues and Challenges
  • Social change and modernization.
  • Gender and Politics in Africa
  • Political institutions
  • Party System in Africa (One party system, Military in politics, Multi-Party System)

Reading List:
Alex Thomson, An Introduction to African Politics, Routledge Publication, 2016.

Anirudh Gupta, Government and Politics of Africa, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, India, (1974).

Bretton, Henry L., (1973), Power and Politics in Arica, Chicago, Aldine Publication.

Carter, W. & Kilson, M. (ed.), The African Reader: Independent Revolution in Guinea, London, 1979.

Chris Allen, Understanding African Politics, Review of African Political Economy, Vol. 22, No. 65, (Sep., 1995) pp. 301-320.

Cross, Colin, The Fall of the British Empire, 1918-1968, Putnam Pub Group (1968). 

Davidson Basil, The African Awakening, New York: The Macmillan Company, (1955).

Gann, L.H.  and P. Duignan, Conialism in Africa, 1870-1914 (1969), vol.  I.

Gupta, Vijay, Kenya: Politics of Independence, Delhi, 1982. 

Gutterdge, W., The Military in African Politics (1969). 

Gwendolen M. Carter (Editor), African One-Party States (1962), Cornell University Press.

Gwendolen M. Carter and Patrick O'Meara, African Independence: The First Twenty-Five Years (eds.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Harris Peter, Studies in African Politics,1929, London Hutchinson (1970).

----------History of Politics of Colonialism, 1870-1914-1960 (1970) vol.111. 

Hodgker, Thomas, Nationalism in Colonial Africa (1956). 

Ian Taylor, African Politics: A very short Introduction, Oxford University Press (2018).

Lee, J.M. , African Armies and Civil Order (1969). 

Renske Doorenspleet and Lia Nijzink (2014) Party Systems and Democracy in Africa, Palgrave Macmillan Publication.

Samuel M. Makinda, Democracy and Multi-Party Politics in Africa, The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Dec., 1996), pp. 555-573.

Sebastain, Elischer (2013) Political Parties in Africa: Ethnicity and Party Formation, Cambridge University Press.

Shillington, Kevin (1998) Causes and Consequences of Independence in Africa, Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers.

Taslim Olawale: Government and Politics in Africa, Asia Publishing House New York (1963).

Tordoff, William, Government and Politics in Africa, Indiana University Press (2002).

Wallenstein, I. Africa: the politics of independence: an interpretation of modern African history (1959). 

Welch, C.W.  (ed.) Soldiers and Statesman in Africa (1970). 

Zulfiqar, Sadia (2016) African Women Writers and the Politics of Gender, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.


Course No. : WA 611

Course  (PhD): WA 611
Course Title:   Africa and the World
Course Type (Core/Optional):   Core
Course Teacher: Prof. Ajay K. Dubey
Credits:  2
Contact Hours:  2 per week
Course Objectives

The course prepares students to examine the space and limitations of African countries in the world affairs.  It exposes them to changing roles of major powers in Africa and also makes them understand the opportunities and space for newly emerging foreign players in Africa.

Learning Outcomes

  1. To equip students to analyse global engagements of African countries.
  2. To quip students to asess the roles of different financial institutions like WB, IMF, WTO in Africa.
  3. To prepare students to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of South – South Institutions in economic and political areas.
  4. To assess the comparative role of newly emerging countries in Africa.

Evaluation Methods :    Sessional Work and Semester examination

Course Content

  • Pan-Africanism
  • The OAU and AU: agenda and roles
  • Afro-Asian resurgence and the Non Aligned Movement (NAM), Relevance of NAM to Africa.
  • Prominent powers and the African countries in the post second World War period.
  • Freedom struggles in Africa and the role of the world community (especially in the resolution of the Southern African conflicts).
  • New international regimes (WB, IMF, WTO) and its impact of Africa.
  • Assertion and 'marginalization' of African countries.
  • Emergent regionalism (SADC, PTA, COMESA. IOC. Etc.)
  • Africa and its relations with India: Historical connections and current issues.


  1. Adams, Pastricia, WB and IMF in Sub-Saharan Africa Journal of International Affairs, 46 (1), 1992.
  2. Ahmad D. Shuaibi, News  World Order and the Prospects for Peace and Security in Africa, Foreign Affairs Reports, 40 (6-7), June-July 1991, pp.1-32.
  3. A.K. Dubey. Indo – African Economic Relations: A Case of South – South Integration.  Africa Quarterly, 27 (3-4), 1987-88, pp.49-79.
  4. Awori Aggrey, Seeking Regional Cooperation  in African Unity, Indian Journal of International  Affairs, 46
  5. Boparai Surinder, Role of OAU in Promoting African Unity, Indian Journal of International Law, 28 (2), April-June 1998, pp.173-77.
  6. Bush, Ray and Szeftel. Morris, Globalisation and the Regulation of Africa, Review of  African Political  Economy, 25 (76), June 1998, pp. 173-77.
  7. Clapham, Christopher, Africa’s  International  Relations, African Affairs, vol.86, no. 345, Oct. 1987.
  8. Connel, Dan and Symth frank, Africa’s new Block, Foreign Affairs, 96 (385), October 1997, pp.607-15.
  9. Croft. Stuart, International Relations and African, Affairs, 96 (385), October 1997, pp.607-15.
  10. Dubey, Ajay-Africa and the World, World Focus, 17 (3), March 1996, 18-20.
  11. Hill Heather, Aid and Cycle of Dependency, Africa Report, Jan-Feb 1992, pp.45-47.
  12. Hough M., Collective Security and its Variants a Conceptual Analysis with Specific Reference to SADC and ECOWAS, strategic Review for southern Africa, 20 (2), November 1998, pp.23-43.
  13. Martin Guy, Continuity and Change in Franco-African Relations, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 33, 1, (1995).
  14. Mwagiru Makumi, OAU and the Management of Internal Conflict in Africa. International Studies, 33 (1) (1995).
  15. Nzo, Alfred, South Africa and NAM, Review of International Affairs, 1998 (1061), October 1997, p.p. 1-4.
  16. Owalabi, A.O. Regional Security: A New Agenda, Africa Quarterly,  365(1), 1996, pp.7-22.
  17. Ramchandani R.R., Role of Regional Organization in Prompting Regional Economic Co-operation. Africa Quarterly, 26 (1), 1986, pp.122.
  18. Rowlands Ian H., Mapping the Prospects for Regional Cooperation in Southern Africa.  Third World Quarterly, 19 (5), 1998, pp.917-934.
  19. Schatz, Sayre P., World Bank’s Fundamental Misconception in Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies, 34 (2), Junex 1996, pp. 239-247.
  20. Shaw, Carolyn M., Organisation of African Unity and its Potential for Resolvign African Conflicts. Africa Quarterly, 38 (1), 1998, pp. 1-20.
  21. Singh, Daleep, India’s Economic Relations in Francophone Africa: Problems and Prospects, Africa Quarterly, 29 (2-4), 1986, pp. 1-22.
  22. Tandon Yash WTO and Africa’s Marginalization, Australian Journal for International Affairs 53 (1), April 16999, pp. 83-94.
  23. Tayler, Ian. China’s Foreign Policy Towards Africa in the 1990s, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 36 (3), 1998.
  24. Titov Vladimir, Africa and the Post Confrontational World in the Making. International Affairs, August 1991 (8), pp. 3-7.


Course No. : WA 613

Course  (PhD):             WA 613
Course Title:                 Research Methodology
Course Type (Core/Optional):         Compulsory
Course Teacher:             Dr. J.M. Moosa
Credits:                 4
Contact Hours:             4 per week

Course Objectives

The Course will train the students to undertake research on Africa by developing their competence on proper usage and utilization of research methods, tools and techniques.  The course will also introduce them to international relations theory.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Understanding of main international relation theories and their application to contemporary Africa and the World.
  2. To study social phenomena in a scientific and systematic manner.
  3. Define the core factors/variables impacting/influence a particular social phenomena and develop/justify suitable tools methods to collect data and analyze it.  
  4. To formulate a research proposal/design to implement research with suitable hypothesis formulation, methodology, tools, techniques and chapter scheme.  

Evaluation Methods : Sessional Work and End-Semester examination

Course Content

i)    Theories and Models of International Relations: Traditional Behavioural and Post-Behavioural.
ii)     Theories of Socio-Economic and Political Development: Modernization; Dependency/ World System; Marxist and Neo-Marxist.

II. Methodology:

  1. Scientific method in Social Sciences: nature of Social Phenomenon: basic steps in scientific method; concepts, hypothesis and theory; science and ideology; value-neutrality debate.
  2. Research Design: Descriptive, Exploratory and Explanatory.
  3. Sources and Techniques of Data Collection: Documentary vs. field sources; their scope, merits and limitations.

a) Documentary Sources: Historical and archival materials newspapers periodicals and other secondary sources.

b) Field Sources: Observation, interview, interview schedule and questionnaire, case study.

4)  Analysis and Interpretation of Data:

a) Qualitative: Classical method of documents analysis; content analysis; historical-comparative analysis.

b) Quantitative: measures of central tendency; measures of dispersion; correlation, association between variables.

5)  Report/Dissertation/Thesis Writing.


  1. Apter, David: The Politics of Modernization (Chicago:University Chicago Press, 1965.
  2. Blackburn, Robin (ed.) Ideology in Social Science : Readings in Critical Social Theory.
  3. Blalock, H.M and nn Blalock (eds.) Methodology in Social Research (New York:1968).
  4. Charlesworth, James, Contemporary Political Analysis (New York, Free Press, 1967).
  5. Galtung, Johan, Theory and Methods in Social Research (New York: Columbia University press, 1967).
  6. Goode, W.J. and P.K. Halt, Methods in Social Research (New York, McGraw Hill, 1968).
  7. Gurpreet Mahajan, Explanations in Human Sciences, Oxford University press, 1980.
  8. Henn, Matt et al., A Short Introduction to Social Research, Sage Publications, London.
  9. KuhnT.S., The Structure of Scientific Revolution (University of Chicago Press, 1970).
  10. O’Dochartaigh Niall, Internet Research Skills, Sage Publications, London.
  11. P.V. Young, Scientific Social Surveys and Research, (Prentice-Hall, N.Delhi 1968).
  12. Reynolds, Paul D., A Primer in Theory Construction (New York : Robbs-Merrill Co., A Primer in Theory Construction (New Yord : Robbs-Merrill Co., 1971).
  13. Rosenean James (ed.), Contending Approaches to International Politics, 1969.
  14. Selltiz, Claire, et. Al. Research Methods in Social Relations (New York : Holt, Renehart and Winston 1959).
  15. Stewart David W., Secondary Research : Information, Sources and Methods, Sage and Windston, 1959).
  16. Taylor, J., From Modernization to Modes of Production (London : Mac Millan, 1979).
  17. Varma, S.P., Modern Political Theory : A Critical Survey Delhi, Vikas, 1986).


Course No. : WA 618

Course Title: Ideologies in Africa
Course Type (Core/Optional):     Core
Course Teacher    :    Dr. Gayettri Dixit
Contact hours    :    2 per week
Instruction Method    :    Lectures, Tutorials, and Seminars
Evaluation Method    :    Sessional Work and End-Semester examination.
Semester    :    Monsoon

Course Objectives:
The core intent of the course is to educate students on the philosophical perspectives of well-known African intellectuals and political figures. Students will be able to comprehend eloquently about African thoughts and ideas by the end of the course. Additionally, students must have learned about African beliefs and philosophy.

Learning Outcomes:

  • To engage in informed dialogue on important topics in the study of African philosophy and ideology.
  • To comprehend selected African philosophers' social, economic, and political viewpoints.
  • To discuss the theoretical and normative contexts that are addressed by African philosophy.
  • To comprehend the difficulties that African philosophy and ideologies face
  • To analyse specific ideologies and relate distinct philosophical concepts to the political initiatives taken by various African post-colonial republics.
  • Describe several ideas and ideologies used in the study of international relations and how they can be utilized in different contexts.

Course Contents:
African Colonialism: Social, Political and Economic Dimensions.
African Nationalism and Integration: Role of Mass Movement.
Pan Africanism and African Union: Individual Identity, Freedom, Humanism and Negritude.
Socialism - content, and form within traditional societies, African democratic and scientific socialism, assessment of Marxism by African thinkers (Afro-Marxism).
Sovereignty & Neo-colonialism in Africa: Under Development and Dependency Theory.
Politics of race, religion and ethnicity in Africa
Social Movements: Role of working class, peasantry, students, women, intelligentsia etc.
Globalization and State Capitalism in Africa.

________, Humanism in Zambia: A Guide to its Implementation Part I, Lusaka, 1976.

________, The Wretched of the Earth, Penguin, 1963.

_________, “Consciencism’ London, Heinemann, 1964.

_________, Building a Socialist State, ________ Government Printer, 1961.

__________, “The Basic Needs of African Socialism”, Pan Africa, April 19, 1963, pp. 13-14.

__________, Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stages of Imperialism London, 1967.

A. Ajala, Pan Africanism: Evolution, Progress and Prospects, London, 1976

Amilcar Cabral, “Identity and Dignity in the Liberation Struggle” Africa Today XIX No. 6, Fall 1972.

Amilcar Cabral, Unity and Struggle, London, Heinman 1980.

B.G. Parinder, African Traditional Religion, London, 1962.

D. Forde (ed.) African Worlds, London 1954.

Fanon, F., ‘Toward the African Revolution: New Delhi, 1962.

Friedland William H. and Roseberg, Carl G. (eds.) ‘African Socialism’ Standford: Calif: Standford University Press, 1964.

Idris Cox, Socialist Ideas in Africa London: Lawrence and Wishert, 1966.

J.L. Humans Leopold Seedar Senghor, Biography with Text of Speeches, Edinburgh University Press, 1971.

Kaunda K.D., Humanism in Zambia Lusaka 1967.

Kobi Baabe, NKrumahism – its theory and practice, in Paul & Sigmund, ed., The Ideologies of the Developing Nations, New York 1973.

M. Fortes and G. Dieterlin (eds.), African Systems of Thought, London 1965.

Mutiso & Rohio, Readings in African Political Thought, London, 1975.

Nelson Mandela, The Struggle is my Life, IDAFSA, London, 1978.

Nkrumah, K. The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah New York, Nelson, 1957.

Nkrumah, K., I Speak of Freedom: A Statement of African Ideology New York: Praeger, 1961.

Nyerere, Julius K. Freedom and Socialism Dar-es-Salaam, Oxford University press, 1968.

S.O. Mezu (ed.) The Philosophy of Pan-Africanism, (Washington, 1965).

Shivaji I.G., The Class Struggle Continues, Dar-es-Salam, Mimeo, 1973.

Ukandi G. Damachi, Leadership, Ideology in Africa: Attitudes Towards Socio-Economic

Development, Praeger, New York, 1976.

UNESCO, Statement on Race, UNESCO 1950.

Young, Crawford, Ideology and Development in Africa. London: Yale University Press, 1982.


Course (PhD) : WA 620
Course Title:   Government and Politics in North Africa
Course Type (Core/Optional):   Core
Course Teacher:   Dr. J.M. Moosa
Credits:   2
Contact Hours:  2 per week
Course Objectives

The course will introduce the students to North Africa through teaching its historical evolution, state formation leading up to contemporary political conditions.  It will also cover North African countries’ relations with others.  

Learning Outcomes

  1. Student would have developed an understanding of the historical evolution and contextualize contemporary North Africa.
  2. Develop an understanding of political processes in North Africa.
  3. North Africa’s positions in the African continent and its relationship with different Saharan African counties
  4. North Africa’s relations with the world in general and India in particular.

Evaluation Methods :    Sessional Work and End-Semester examination

Course Content

  •  Understanding North Africa
  • History, Politics and Economy of North Africa
  • Geo-Political features of North Africa
  • North Africa and Sub- Saharan Africa
  •  North Africa and West Asia
  • North Africa and India
  •  North Africa and the world.
  1. Brief background of the Area – geographical and historical
  2. Colonial dominance and the anti-imperialist struggle. Armed struggle. Impact of modernization. The Salafiya movement. Liberal constitutional movement and growth of party system. Failure of the movement. Political violence and anti-imperialist movement.
  3. Political evolution after the attainment of independence.

(i) Morocco:  Role of monarch, Multi-party system, Constitutional evolution, the  question of Western Sahara

(ii) Tunisia:  Role of dominant personality, Single-party system, Constitutional evolution.

(iii) Algeria: Quest for power and rise of Ben Bella, Single-party system, Coup d’etat and the coming into power of Boume dienne. The Algeria experiment in Socialism, Algeria after Boumedinne.

(iv) Libya: Establishing a monarchy, partyless system, constitutional evolution, transition from federalism to unitary form of government, Coup d’etat and the emergency of Qaddafi, introducing the single-party system and the party-less democracy.

(v)  Egypt:   The coup d’etat of 23 July 1952. Nasser’s rise to power, Socio-economic and political content of Nasserism, Egypt under Sadat and Mubarak, effects of de-Nasserization.

  1. Religion and politics in North Africa.  Role of military in North African politics.  The single-party system. The unity of the Nile Valley. Maghreb unity.


  • Abidi, A.H.H. ed., (1989), Indo-Gulf Economics Relations: Pattern, Prospects & Policies, (New Delhi: Intellectual Publishing House)
  • Ahmad, S.Maqbul, (1978), Indo-Arab Relations, (New Delhi)
  • Ahmad, S. Maqbul, (1969), Indo-Arab Relations: An Account of India’s Relations with the Arab World from Ancient upto the Modern Times, (New Delhi: Indian Council for Cultural Relations)
  • Andinet, Pierre and others, (2000) India’s Energy Essays on Sustainable Development, (New Delhi: Manohar Publishers).
  • Appadorai, A., (1981), Domestic Roots of India’s Foreign Policy (New Delhi: Oxford University Press).
  • Azhar, Muhammad, (1999), Contemporary Gulf Economics and Indo-Gulf Relations, (New Delhi: New Horizon Publishers)
  • Bakshi, S.R., (1985), Gandhi and Khilafat, (New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House)
  • Banerji, Arun Kumar ed., (1983), The Gulf War and the Energy Crisis in India, (Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co.)
  • Bhargava, G.S., (1967), India and West Asia: A Survey of Public Opinion (New Delhi: Popular Book Services)
  • Brecher, Michael, (1968), India and World Politics (London: Oxford University Press)
  • Brick, Simone Panter, (2008), Jews, Arabs and Imperial Interests Gandhi and the Middle East, (London I.B. Tauris & Co.)


A warm welcome to the modified and updated website of the Centre for East Asian Studies. The East Asian region has been at the forefront of several path-breaking changes since 1970s beginning with the redefining the development architecture with its State-led development model besides emerging as a major region in the global politics and a key hub of the sophisticated technologies. The Centre is one of the thirteen Centres of the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi that provides a holistic understanding of the region.

Initially, established as a Centre for Chinese and Japanese Studies, it subsequently grew to include Korean Studies as well. At present there are eight faculty members in the Centre. Several distinguished faculty who have now retired include the late Prof. Gargi Dutt, Prof. P.A.N. Murthy, Prof. G.P. Deshpande, Dr. Nranarayan Das, Prof. R.R. Krishnan and Prof. K.V. Kesavan. Besides, Dr. Madhu Bhalla served at the Centre in Chinese Studies Programme during 1994-2006. In addition, Ms. Kamlesh Jain and Dr. M. M. Kunju served the Centre as the Documentation Officers in Chinese and Japanese Studies respectively.

The academic curriculum covers both modern and contemporary facets of East Asia as each scholar specializes in an area of his/her interest in the region. The integrated course involves two semesters of classes at the M. Phil programme and a dissertation for the M. Phil and a thesis for Ph. D programme respectively. The central objective is to impart an interdisciplinary knowledge and understanding of history, foreign policy, government and politics, society and culture and political economy of the respective areas. Students can explore new and emerging themes such as East Asian regionalism, the evolving East Asian Community, the rise of China, resurgence of Japan and the prospects for reunification of the Korean peninsula. Additionally, the Centre lays great emphasis on the building of language skills. The background of scholars includes mostly from the social science disciplines; History, Political Science, Economics, Sociology, International Relations and language.

Several students of the centre have been recipients of prestigious research fellowships awarded by Japan Foundation, Mombusho (Ministry of Education, Government of Japan), Saburo Okita Memorial Fellowship, Nippon Foundation, Korea Foundation, Nehru Memorial Fellowship, and Fellowship from the Chinese and Taiwanese Governments. Besides, students from Japan receive fellowship from the Indian Council of Cultural Relations.